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12/06/2014 – 8:50 pm |

Smokes and Mirrors is a photography exhibition at NC State’s Gregg Museum of Art and Design (open September 25, 2014- Feb. 6, 2015 call 919-513-7244 to schedule a visit) that I had the opportunity to …

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Submitted by on 09/14/2014 – 5:43 pm 51 Comments

What is photocubism and what is it trying to achieve? What is David Hockney trying to achieve through his joiners? Please share links to examples.


  • Katherine says:

    Cubism emerged in the year of 1907 in the city of Paris through the efforts of Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. The movement embraced the idea of viewing objects in a new way: by breaking down subject matter and redefining it through multiple points of view at the same time. The popularity of the movement grew as artists saught to find a new way to represent reality. The first phase of the movement known as the Analytic phase tried to recreate objects as how the mind saw them – as opposed to the eyes. The second phase, titled the Synthetic phase, sought to recreate objects in simple forms and brighter colors. Key artists that continued to develop the ideas of Cubism include: Robert Delaunay, Francis Picabia, Jean Metzinger, Marcel Duchamp and Fernand Léger.

    Photocubism takes this idea and progresses it by using different photos of a space that are then put together to create one larger image of the space. They are not always lined up exactly but they all fit together.

    • Katherine says:

      David Hockney’s Joiners are very interesting pieces because they are different from the normal photo cubism in that the pictures don’t line up and are even replicated in the adjoining photos.

  • Samantha says:

    Photocubism is a collection of photographs that are collaged together to form a piece of art. It is an art form created by Pablo Picasso and is considered the first kind of abstract art. It was formed in order to break free of traditional art form and create something entirely new. Photocubism is the artist’s way of achieving something new and different for the viewer to experience. Through David Hockney’s joiner he is trying to break the rules of dimension by make things further away appear bigger than the ones closest to the viewer. He collects images from different times to form one piece of art. I personally have never seen or heard of this but the idea of a form of art having so much depth and meaning intrigues me.

    Here is a link to some really interesting examples!http://www.dreampraycreate.com/2011/09/lesson-idea-photocubism-inspired-by.html

  • Carly says:

    Photocubism is essentially a photographic portrait comprised of multiple images of the same subject. The concept behind photocubism is to illustrate a moment in time as well as the place in which this moment is taking place in a way that an ordinary snapshot cannot. Capturing a unique perspective is also an important characteristic of photocubism.

    The artist David Hockney utilized the idea of capturing a unique perspective in much of his works. The work “Kerby (After Hogarth) Useful Knowledge” catalyzed Hockney’s perspective movement by exploring backwards perspectives and portraying them “wrong”. Other works, such as “Mulholland Drive” and “A Visit with Christopher and Don” abandoned the idea of capturing a “normal” perspective and focused on forcing movement while creating a narrative.

    In the 1980′s, Hockney’s “Joiners” came to him accidentally while taking polaroids for a painting. He glued the photographic shots he took of his living room together and realized that the pictures embodied a narrative that moved the viewer through the room, much like what he had achieved in his previous paintings. Essentially, he inadvertently created a new form of photography. The “Joiner” photo-collages that Hockney developed comprised of a patchwork of images to form a cohesive image. Overall, Hockney is trying to achieve and illustrate a new perspective as well as the feeling of movement in his “Joiner” images.

    Here a link to an awesome video on Hockney’s “Joiners”


    Also, here is a website that provides really good visual examples of “Joiners” as well.


  • Amanda says:

    Before photocubism, there was cubism. Cubism is defined as a form of art that has characteristics of geometrical shapes, a focus on structure, and the formation of independent planes with different perspectives. The creators of this form of art were originally Pablo Picasso and George Braque. Now photocubism is simply the same form of art but not with painting or sculpting. A piece of photocubism is a collaboration of cubism and photography. It is the use of photos taken at different times or places and then put together to create a form that the eyes see as a whole.

    David Hockney took this form of art called cubism and put his photography skills to a different use. He created photo collages, called “joiners”, using a sort of patch work to make up the image. The idea of photocubism takes the photos from different perspectives and times and puts them close in proximity to make the eye see one image in the midst of many.

    Here are some examples of both cubism and photocubism.


  • Emma says:

    Cubism was an early 20th century art movement by Braque and Picasso. The popularity of these works comes from the representation of the three dimensional forms, breaking of, and reassembling of shapes.
    Photocubism: David hockney used the same principles of “line and form” that he used previously in drawing. By concentrating on certain areas of a composition and placing several photos onto a board, he created imaged called “Joiners”. The photos showed more than the average portraits. It was more of a time lapse.
    The images are photomontages of mostly polaroid. Hockney took detail photos of a scene and arranged them to create the entire image. Due to the fact that many of the detail shots were taken at different times and arranged next to each other, one can see how the human eye views a scene in real time; it creates a narrative.

  • Bethany says:

    Photocubism is the a more modern form of cubism. Cubism started around the early 1900s with artists such as, Pablo Picasso, and George Braque. It creates a sense of an object or person by using multiple perspectives of different parts of the object. The parts are combined together to create a mixture of different perspectives of the same object to give the viewer a sense of what the object is but not a defined, clear picture. Photocubism does this by combining a multitude of photographs to create a sort of collage. Photocubism attempts to achieve a sense of an object from many points of view and at different times.

    David Hockney is the artist who began to use photography to create cubism type scenes, or what he calls joiners. He is trying to covey a sense of movement with these pictures and by the lines and shapes of the object at different angles and times.

    Here is a link to some examples of David Hockney’s joiners. http://dangerousminds.net/comments/david_hockneys_cubist_photography

  • Victoria Hancock says:

    Photocubism is the art of taking the two dimensional medium of photography and turning it into a 3-d work of art by mounting photographs on solid structures at different heights. It is a way of taking multiple photographs and compiling them into one large piece in a manner that is aesthetically pleasing. The level of intricacy that can be reached by combining a bunch of small detailed images into one large one makes for a phenomenal viewing experience. This combination of photography and sculpture is very similar to what David Hockney did with his “joiners”. Hockney’s “joiners” contain less of the 3-d element that photocubism adopts, but maintains the concept of a photocollage. Hockney would take the individual photographs from different angles at different times, resulting in a unique vision of the subject. In some of his “joiners” his subject would actually be moving, so there was almost a sense of continuous narration within the composition. As he progressed with this style, instead of letting the subject move about, he moved around the subject within the picture plane to capture more interesting perspectives and details. Throughout his pieces elements of perspective and time were exceptionally important. Photocubism and Hockney’s “joiners” are pieces that capture moments in an incredibly unique manner, that show time lapses of events that would be fleeting in any other art form, or wouldn’t come across correctly. As for perspective, these photographs capture these people and places from a certain vantage point, putting the viewer in the artist’s shoes, in that place, at that specific time.

    This was a fun and interesting link of some of Hockney’s “joiners”: http://www.shootingfilm.net/2013/01/joiners-polaroid-collages-by-david.html

    Hmoong, Khánh. “”Joiners” – Creative Polaroid Collages by David Hockney.” Shooting Film. N.p., 29 Jan. 2013. Web. 16 Sept. 2014. < http://www.shootingfilm.net/2013/01/joiners-polaroid-collages-by-david.html>.

    “Home.” Photo Cubism: The Artistic Work of Devon Artist Ben Yates. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2014. < http://www.photocubism.com/home.php>.

    “Photo Cubism.” Photo Cubism: The Artistic Work of Devon Artist Ben Yates. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2014. < http://www.photocubism.com/photocubism.php>.

  • Swati Bhatt says:

    Photocubism consists of multiple images/photographs arranged in grids. Each work collects together images from such as everyday life, including nature, cities, interiors, personal spaces etc. The images focus on isolated aspects of reality, and show life seen from multiple perspectives – a new contemplative vision, revealing unexpected layers of meaning. The final work becomes a puzzle of things and each piece is represented as a movie in its own right, containing its own story, its own little universe.

    David Hockney is an artist who started early in 1980s, He began to produce photocollages, which he called “Joiners” first of Polaroid prints and later 35mm, commercially processed color prints. Using numbers of Polaroid snaps he arranged a patchwork to make a composite image. His very first photomontages was of his mother. Because these photographs are taken from different perspectives and at slightly different times, the result of work that has similarity with Cubism. When he arrive in California he started to create photomontage and often referred to them as joiners. He began this style of art by taking photographs of one subject and arranging them into grid layout. The subject would actually move while being photographed so that the piece would show the movements of the subject seen from the photographer’s perspective. In later works Hockney changed his technique and moved the camera around the subject instead.



  • Isabel says:

    Photocubism is a type of artwork that was originally derived from Pablo Picasso’s abstract painting style of cubism. A piece created through photocubism is a collage of multiple photographs that make up one large picture. These photographs most often have the same subject matter, but each individual photo is either taken at a different distance or perspective. This style creates an unusual perspective because of the way the pictures are placed, or because the photographs could have been taken at different times or even in different places.

    Hockney first began a new phase in his career when he found himself taking Polaroids in his studio at home. After picking and choosing which ones he liked the most, he pieced them together in a sort of photomontage; this is what Hockney called “joiners.” Joiners were used to capture time and perspective in a photograph that one snapshot could not.
    Hockney would try to create one vanishing point out of hundreds of pictures with different vanishing points by taking close-ups and angled shots of different subjects in the piece.

    Here’s a cool link!




  • Katie says:

    Photo cubism is the modern version of the 20th century revolutionary style known as “Cubism”. This style was parented by Pablo Picasso and George Braque as an attempt to renew the traditional Western art styles. Cubism is created using geometric shapes with connected surfaces that later form a collage. It emphasizes two- dimensional planes and refutes the perspective techniques that have been considered mandatory in art for so long. Cubism favors right-angles and straight-lines as well as simplified, monochromatic color schemes. Rather than having a vanishing point and receding, the plans of a Cubism piece appear as if they are ascending the canvas. Photo cubism is the same concept except instead of painting numerous planes, it combines pictures to create one final piece.

    David Hockney was one artist that dabbled with photo cubism and collage however he referred to the technique as “joiners”. This consists of the same idea as photo cubism-overlapping photographs to form a final, unified piece. These pictures are usually taken from several angles and perspectives and may even have different color schemes than the surrounding images. Hockney was a firm believer that objective vision simply did not exist. His driving force was to create a photography piece with components that photographs cannot posses- layered time, space, and narration. He aimed to invite viewers into the pieces as if they were there themselves.

    Go check him out!


  • Madison says:

    Cubism was developed and originated by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Cubism was very prominent around the 1920’s. Cubism is an attempt to present more reality of a subject by showing different sides or features of a subject so that it would seem as if the viewer were actually walking around it. Therefore, photo cubism also attempts to do the exact same thing but with the use of photography.

    Hockney’s discovery of “joiners” was on accident when he took several pictures of a subject he was painting and glued them together. However, after analyzing the glued pictures he realized that the whole composition portrayed a narrative about the subject.

    Here is a link of some works done by Hockney http://www.shootingfilm.net/2013/01/joiners-polaroid-collages-by-david.html

    Here is another link that show some other really good examples of photo cubism

  • Dylan says:

    David Hockney, the creator of Photocubism, drew his inspiration from the immortal Picasso’s pioneering Cubist style. Essentially massive collections of photographs, Hockney’s “joiner” pieces depict both abstract human figures and landscapes. Taken from different angles and perspectives the pieces present an interesting medium; his photography friends claimed it wasn’t a photograph, but does it qualify as a painting? Regardless, his work has been widely celebrated.
    By combining photographs, Hockney presents an image that one can analyze more than the camera itself did, painstakingly recreating an environment the camera captured in milliseconds. It also brings to light details that would otherwise be ignored. This distorts reality, creating an almost surreal image – when discussing one of his works, Hockney noted that while the photograph has a single vanishing point his photo Cubist works have several. Below is a collection of his various works – feel free to check it out.


    I used the same website as a source,
    as well as the video we were assigned to watch.

  • Quinan says:

    Cubism was pioneered by the artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braques during the early 20th century. The idea behind cubism is to break down a subject and depict it from multiple angles and viewpoints. By doing this, the artist creates a new way of “seeing” the subject.

    Later on, Hockney introduced photography in to the cubism style, creating what he called ‘joiners’. Through these joiners, Hockney tried to capture the complexity and liveliness of his subject by taking multiple photographs from different angles and then joining them together in a Cubist-like collage.



  • Cassie says:

    In the early 1900s, cubism emerged through the efforts of renowned artists Picasso and Braque. Picasso, emerging from his blue and red periods, now wanted to turn to something else–something that had never been explored before. Some of the first cubistic works from Braque include the famous painting, “Violin and Palette”:


    As can be seen, the violin and the palette have been very abstracted, but in a very precise manner. Different views and perspectives of the violin and the painter’s palette have been captured and are displayed all at the same time–reminiscent of the ancient “composite style” done most famously by the ancient Egyptians. They are then carefully collaged into one painting. That is what cubism is. Another example is one of Picasso’s most famous works, Ma Jolie. Abstracted to the point where the woman is barely recognizable, this still is an example of cubism.


    Photocubism departs from being a style of painting and drawing to being an art of photography, where photos of the same object in different perspectives are collaged precisely together into something new. David Hockney, a major pioneer in the field of photocubism, has done something beyond what Picasso and Braque achieved. By taking photos in places over the course of many days and slowly piecing them together–but in a way that is warped and not quite right, he not only blends space and distorts our sense of it, but he also blends time and shows its passing in one image. His works are highly illustrative, meant to tell a story and show a place as time passes. He doesn’t merely piece images together for the novelty, which is what initially drove Picasso and Braque, he wants to create an entirely new “place” altogether that places us in a new dimension.


    Sources Used:
    -The video
    -AP Art History notes

  • Sarah B. says:

    Photocubism is a form of art that breaks images up into many different geometric shapes combining them together to reveal the overall image composed of different angles/perspectives.

    Cubism itself is “a style of painting and sculpture developed in the early 20th century, characterized chiefly by an emphasis on formal structure, the reduction of natural forms to their geometrical equivalents, and the organization of the planes of a represented object independently of representational requirements.” – Dictionary.com

    David Hockney is an incredibly influential British artist who is known for his large contributions to the pop art movement.

    Joiners: David Hockney began producing photo collages in the 1980’s from which he coined the term “joiners.” These collages consisted of prints taken by Polaroid as well as colored prints. He would take many photographs of the same composition and “arrange a patchwork to make a composite image.” The style achieved was similar to other styles of cubism due to the fact that the photos taken were at different times or angles. This would give viewers a unique perspective when seeing his work.

    The discovery of this technique came to Hockney by accident. Photographers during this time were using wide-angle lenses like many people still use currently; however, they were not as high-tech as they are today and would cause slight distortions in photographs, which Hockney did not like. When he needed a wider view of a living room he was painting in Los Angeles, he took multiple Polaroids and glued them together not knowing that the final result would be a unique composition in itself.


    “David Hockney: The Joiners” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

    “The Photocubism Pool.” Flickr. Yahoo!, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

  • Katelynn McCorquodale says:

    Cubism was introduced by the artists Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, and more. Cubism was a revolutionary style of painting and sculpture during the early 20th century in Europe, specifically France. It is where elements are broken up, analyzed and organized in a more abstracted form. Instead of focusing on one perspective, the artist illustrates the subject from multiple viewpoints.

    Inspired by the style of Cubism, David Hockney tried to recreate this technique using photography, therefore creating what is now known as Photocubism. Interestingly, this new discovery was actually an accident. Hockney was arranging different Polaroid shots he took while in LA and glued them together, not attempting to create one composition. Hockney liked how the final image “created a narrative” and moved the viewer’s eye through the image. He created many more of these collages and called them “joiners,” using people or landscapes as the subject.

    Photocubism is an arranged patchwork of images that create one final composition. The photos that make up the image are taken from different perspectives or even different time periods, creating an image full of multiple angles and fragmented objects. The final product can give the viewer a better understanding of the space and time than an ordinary snapshot would.

    I found a very interesting photographer, named Stephen McNally, that was inspired by David Hockney and urged him to create his own photo collages. You can see his work here:

    Hockney Video
    “Cubism.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Sept. 2014. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
    “Cubism.” Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

  • Matt Gluf says:

    Cubism was an art movement that made a huge impact in the early 20th-century especially in painting. It employs the use of simple geometric shapes, interlocking planes and eventually collage. It is less about representing natural forms, but reducing them down to geometric versions.

    David Hockney’s Joiners pieces utilize the philosophy in cubism that strays from representing a scene by how it looks, and focuses on a representation of space and of movement of the subjects within the space. It also draws from the geometric aesthetic with the rectangles collaged together. It not only creates a sense of how the space looks, but characterizes the people within in it and how they interacted within it; they tell stories.

    “Crossword Puzzle” by David Hockney

    Looking at this piece you really get a sense of how the two subjects interacted with each other as well as with the crossword puzzle they are working on together. There is also a very strong sense of space with the two hands at the bottom and the slight curve in the composure of the pictures. It gives the view a sense that they are actually within the scene.

  • Zail says:

    Photocubism is an arrangement of multiple photos to create a bigger picture. Pictures are taken on a focused parts of a subject rather than the subject as a whole. Then they are pieced together to show the full subject. Like cubism, photographers use multiple images to create an image. Sometimes it takes around 100 images to complete a photo cubistic image.

    In 1970, Hockney created his first joiner, which was a collage of polaroid images laid out in a gridded pattern. Even though his joiners are what made him famous, Hockney happened upon them by accident. While in Los Angeles, he took pictures of a painting he was working on and put them together so he was able to paint from the image. After he finished painting, he realized that the “joiner” he created was art itself.


  • Yu says:

    Cubism is an art form in the 20th century, involving a combination of geometric shapes to create an abstract or distorted picture. Different from traditionally cubism which is a painted or drawn method, photocubism is a combination of numerous photos of the same subject by the use of a montage. These pictures are usually taken from different perspectives, so it describes how we see the world from multiple viewpoints that are then pieced together by our mind.

    David Hockney is best known for his photograph works called “joiners”. It is a method of taking many photographs, or the individual parts of a subject and piecing the prints together to recreate the scene or person. This unique idea occurred to him by accident when he lived in Los Angeles. He didn’t like using wide-angle lenses when took photos, so he took lots of pictures and combined them together to create a brand new art work. He takes photos from different perspectives and times to form one photograph work, so viewers can see the scenery in real space and time and it creates a narrative at the same time.

    He created many other artworks besides the work “Kerby (After Hogarth) Useful Knowledge” using this method. In his mind, this sort of picture came closer to how we actually see, because we see the scene as variety of elements instead of a whole, and then we build up them into our continuous experience of the world.

    Following links are some introductions on his works.
    These websites teach us how to create a Cubism Photo:

  • Jenny says:

    This kind of abstract art was first created by Pablo Picasso and George Braque, known as Cubism at the time. Cubism was well known in the early 1900s and was mainly based around traditional Western art styles at the time. This art style uses geometric shapes and multiple angles on a subject to give the viewer a more abstract view of the subject.

    David Hockney was inspired by Cubism, and tried to recreate the technique, now known as Photocubism. The pieces made by David Hockney are photo collages, which he named “Joiners”, which uses photographs taken at different angles and perspectives to compose a whole image. He started out working with photo collages, and worked his way into creating more of a photomontage that uses a grid form. He likes the way his work creates a narrative for the viewer and guides their eye throughout the image.


  • Lasha says:

    Photocubism gives a realistic view of a two dimensional image. Regular photographs capture single moments and not movement, which would otherwise cause a blur in the image. We see everyday life in a three dimensional form, from various angles and sizes as we, other people, or objects move. Objects and forms grow larger when closer in view and smaller when farther away. Human forms as well, show this with movement, and capturing such actions in a single photograph would cause a blur to form as a camera does not have such capability to merge together several actions. Camera shutters and settings can be manipulated to capture the moment of movement clearly, but still the result is only one action, not several. So capturing the movement into a two dimensional level would require the use of collaging together several photographs of subjects, and expanding the setting of where it took place. The result gives an abstract and geometric feel that is similar to cubism; thus, the name photocubism was born.

    Hockney expressed in the video that he thought he would never be interested in photography until he saw it from a different point of view, which is what he projects into the joiners he has done. He wanted to show “[the] illusion of space never seen in a photograph”, which was something he was able to achieve. In video, forms are all smoothed out, and the movement is captured separately, but with the joiners and collage of pictures you get a new sense of movement, several points of view, and expanded view of the time and place.


  • Eilish says:

    Photocubism has it’s roots in the early 1900s, where Picasso wanted to explore what could be done by combining different angles and perspectives within his art. This is called Cubism, which is defined as a style of painting that emphasizes on formal structure and the organization of planes of the object independent from typical perspective.

    David Hockney began his production of photo collages in the 1980s. He would take multiple photographs of the same composition and arrange them together in a composite image. He would take images at different times and angles, which created an abstract view of the subject within the piece.

    Hockney’s discovery of joiners was an accident. Hockney took several pictures of a subject that he was trying to paint and he glued them together due to his displeasure in the errors of his photographs at the time. However, after he analyzed what he had created, he realized that he created a piece of art in itself.


  • Marcella says:

    Photocubism is a collage of photographs to form a composition of art. It evolved from Cubism which is a form of art that uses a unique perspective on the characteristics of geometrical shapes. Cubism was originally used by Pablo Picasso. Photocubism is a modern sense of Cubism. It was created to expand the viewer’s understanding of the traditional art form. Photocubism captures elements of time or life in a new perspective that could not normally be represented through a photograph.

    David Hockney uses photography to create collages of snapshots to make a complete composition. These snapshots are taken from multiple angles to provide the user with a broader sense of the image. He calls these compositions “Joiners”. His “Joiner” pieces are used to capture a certain perspective or time in a way that an original photograph could not. Hockney is attempting to achieve a new perspective as well as a feeling of motion in his “Joiner” pieces.

    Here is a link to some of David Hockney’s Photocubism compositions.


  • Kerrigan says:

    Photocubism is basically a collage of photographs to create a whole. The photographs usually are a “zoomed in” image of the whole space, and when put together they give a new perspective and realistic view of the whole. Photocubism has its roots in cubism which was a painting style commonly used by Picasso. His style included many geometric shapes put together to create a recognizable object. However these objects were abstracted through perspective and size.

    David Hockney composes pieces he calls “joiners” through the use of photocubism. He took many pictures of the same space and put them together to show a space from a perspective that just one photograph could not. In the video his photocubistic art is described as a painting as opposed to photography- which is interesting to think about because it is true that he was able to manipulate the space in a way that one photograph would have not allowed him to do.

  • Holly says:

    Cubism is a style of modern art that emerged at the start of the 20th century from Pablo Picasso and Georges Braques. In their works, forms of representation were challenged. The goal was to develop a new way of seeing which reflected the modern ever-changing world. To represent the world, they purposely combined multiple perspectives all in one composition. Cubist artwork analyzes and reassembles objects in an abstracted form. This way of depicting an object in a multitude of viewpoints was believed to represent the subject in a greater context.

    Then there is photocubism in which this “greater context” is still achieved, but with David Hockney’s photographs. Hockney used the same rule of multiple perspective from Cubism to gain “a different space that you can participate in; a more thrilling space.” In his work, he explains that not knowing or breaking the rules of perspective can create something amazing. Hockney used his camera to capture so many perspectives of what he wanted to focus on. He then formed collages from the photographs, forcing people to see the subject matter in different ways all at one time.

    David Hockney – Joiners – Documentary:

    Source: http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/art_movements/cubism.htm

  • Jeremy Jordan says:

    During the early 1900′s artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque developed the visual art style, cubism. Cubism deviates from realism as it attempts to place emphasis on certain aspects of the environment being produced, while minimizing the emphasis on aspects that the artist deems unimportant to the work. It seems like cubist works also play with the idea of conflict, have multiple vantage points at work. Many geometric forms are utilized in these works.

    Frustrated with the instantaneous nature of a photograph, Hockney set out to change this, and used multiple photographs from various perspectives in an “attempt to create a picture with a greater feeling of space and time than any traditional photograph”, coining the technique a ‘joiner.’ While traditional photographs usually convey a feeling of stillness, joiners have the ability to create a sense of motion. Moreover, joiners encourage the viewer to explore, drifting to and from the various aspects being emphasized in the work.

    You can view the creation of one of Hockney’s joiners here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cGtraVb_0vY#t=596

    • Christopher says:

      It’s fun that you bring up Hockney’s frustration with photography, since despite all the experimentation with the medium he eventually went back to painting after a he was told that one of his joiners was a painting.

  • James Levi says:

    Photocubism, as the name implies, is an extension of the Cubism artistic movement that originated in the early 20th Century. With Pablo Picasso being the most notable member of this movement, art created in this style emphasizes abstraction and distorted viewpoints with regard to the artistic subject. Cubism eventually spread from 2-D images to also encompass sculpture, architecture, and photography.

    David Hockney, a pioneer of Photocubism, is notable for his concept of “joiners” – a patchwork of photographs of the same subject, from slightly different angles, to create an interesting sense of perspective. Discovering the technique by accident after his attempt to piece together photographs, Hockney seeks to present time, space, and narrative in an interesting way with his compositions.

    He has explored a wide array of subjects; one example of his that I like is this one, particularly for its symmetry:

    Museum of Modern Art

    David Hockney Documentary

    Carnegie Mellon University

  • Erin says:

    Cubism was introduced in the early twentieth century by Picasso and many other famous artists around that time period. The concept of Cubism is that the true core of an object can only be understood by showing it from different perspectives, simultaneously. Photocubism evolved from Cubism and includes using photographs to grasp deeper elements such as time and space.

    Hockney worked a lot with joiners which are art pieces made of a series of photographs taken from many different perspectives and then organized into one larger image. By taking photos from different angles and view points, Hockney can change the supposed shape of space and perspective, and incorporate time into his many works. He can grasp time this way because the many photographs act as action shots that can be translated into his art.


  • Emily says:

    Cubism is a study of an object or a place from many different perspectives or points of view. Hockney is accomplishing in his joiners this concept of cubism by taking photographs of many different aspects of the same subject, zooming in, being creative about different angles, and combining them all together into a piece that is something new, something that would not be accomplished just by taking a photograph of the scene. Here is a link to examples of his work: http://www.hockneypictures.com/photos/photos_collages.php

  • Bianca says:

    Cubism is one of the most influential art styles of the early twentieth century. It was created by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. The term cubism was coined by the French art critic Louis Vauxcelles after he saw braque’s landscapes in 1908 at L’Estaque. He called the geometric forms of the abstract works cubes. Influences of early cubist works like Picasso’s was African art (primitive art)

    Photocubism is the combination of cubism and photography. It is when photographs are taken at different times, places, angles, etc. to create one composition. Hockney’s joiners were his use of Photocubism. Through his joiners he wished to introduce three artistic elements which a single photo couldn’t have: layered time, space and narrative. Both time and space are central cubist themes.


  • Tiffany says:

    Photocubism is inspired by the different angles and perspectives cubism allowed you to see. Inspired by Cubism, photocubism was more of a photography-based version. Photocubism is different photographs collaged together to make a single composition. David Hockney used “joiners” to give life to photographs. Hockney explained, “I had become very, very aware of this frozen moment that was very unreal to me. The photographs didn’t really have life in the way a drawing or painting did, and I realized it couldn’t because of what it is.” Accepting a photo for what it is and transforming it into moving art was his intention. Joiners allowed Hockney to show motion and excitement, things a regular picture would not be able to express.

    Some examples of joiners are:



  • Christopher says:

    Hockney’s exploration of perspective with his photography was a way for him to explore space in what he felt was a more interesting and engaging way. His “joiners” consisted of multiple photographs of the same place or object, taken from different perspectives and combined after development to create the whole of the image. Hockney’s intention was to create a narrative which the viewer could move through. One of Hockney’s biggest inspirations was Picasso, who was a major contributor in the cubist movement. Cubism involves a lot of flat planes, angles, and multiple perspectives shown at once. By nature, the collages created in photocubism demonstrate these aspects.

  • Mary says:

    Photo-Cubism allows photography to change from 2-D to 3-D, and allows a variety of small pictures to be put together in one artwork to be used as a color study or as a personal story. The artist can create a unified and balanced composition by using elements of the object or person in various parts of the composition. The elements are usually taken from the same viewpoint, but portray different views on it.

    Hockney’s “joiners” are photo collages that are grid-like compositions. Joiners happened somewhat accidentally when Hockney took a different approach to photographing an area, rather than using a wide-angle lens. They began in the early 1980’s and usually consisted of abstractions of scenes he photographed. The different exposures to the scenes he chose, gave the scene a certain movement. This method allows Hockney to show time through photography.

  • Sarah A. says:

    Cubism was first developed by Picasso and Georges Braque and it is when an artist brings together many different views of a particular subject into one composition. It also allows for the subject to appear more three-dimensional and give the piece more depth. This normally results in a new image that is fragmented or abstracted somewhat. Photocubism takes this idea and creates the new composition using only photographs as opposed to paint or some other media.

    Through David Hockney’s Joiners, he wants to illustrate how we piece together different viewpoints in our minds to create a singular image, and how we turn the world around us into a two-dimensional picture.

    Some examples of his pieces are:

  • Lizzy says:

    David Hockney expressed that paintings and drawings combine a multitude of moments experienced by an artist which are strung together to form one piece. He felt that photography was missing this element. Photographs merely capture a frame of a moment and are therefore incomplete.

    To make up for what photography lacks, Hockney created his photocubism joiners. He would photograph different details and angles of his subject and collage these different images together to create one piece. These were much more dynamic results that actually take on the element of time.


  • Brandon says:

    Photocubism takes its inspiration from analytic cubism in which objects are broken down and put back together in an abstract form. Multiple photographs are taken from multiple perspectives, time frames, and angles and incorporated into an arrangement that allows for a deeper exploration of the subject than is typically presented in the two-dimensional medium of photography.

    Joiners are photographic collages that attempt to imitate the natural movement that occurs while observing or walking through a space. The individual images each represent a moment in time and contemplation that, taken together, form a narrative of movement through a space.

  • Hayley says:

    Photocubism boils down to a sort of collage out of photos meant to create a new composition. It is most similar to Analytic Cubism in the way that multiple views of the same thing are often considered. Thus, altering and breaking down the image into pieces, but leaving it essentially recognizable to the viewer giving them hundreds of new ways to view the image in one moment. Through this photo process (what Hockney coined “Joiners”), he attempted to modernize this older school of art and apply it to his subject content. They emphasis a layered understanding of life through story and angle. His works develop their own personalities and meanings throughout their viewings and give us this inadvertent art genre we call Photocubism.

    Here’s an article out of one of my favorite magazines on him.

  • Grace says:

    Photo cubism is a more modern take on cubism. Cubism began in the early 20th century and was pioneered by Braque and Picasso. Cubism was an attempt to reinvent traditions of Western Art and abandoned the tradition of perspective drawing. Cubism instead focused on the use of geometric shapes, collaging, and interlocking planes. Photo cubism uses this same technique but does this by using photos to illustrate a space or room. Photo cubism turns 2D photos into a seemingly 3D image. Photo cubism encompasses the variety and details of a room into one image. An example of photo cubism can be seen in http://www.3villagecsd.k12.ny.us/artsgelinas/new_page_17.htm

    David Hockney used joiners to create a narrative in his images by leading the viewers eye around the image. He also used joiners because he was able to display a variety of perspectives in his images. He discovered this technique accidentally when he was experimenting with wide-angle lenses. This joiner technique can be seen here: http://www.hockneypictures.com/photos/photos_polaroids.php

  • Bekah says:

    Photocubism is an artistic style inherited from the Cubism movement which is characterized by polygonal forms, sometimes of the same subject over time. A great example of classic cubism is Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 by Marcel Duchamp, illustrating the figure passing through space.

    The way David Hockney adopts this into his work is through the use of storytelling through differing perspectives and extreme observation. While avidly discussing his painting “A Visit with Christopher and Don,” Hockney walks us through each of the spaces and rooms of the painting, all pointing towards the same house on the hill. The purpose of this painting’s style is to capture you in a space, each one secular yet all fitting together.

    His noteworthy Photocubist “joiners,” such as “Pearlblossom Highway,” accomplishes the same concepts and tasks as his paintings by photographic one scene in different perspectives. This fools the eye into believing we are looking at one particular space, but if we focus hard enough on a segment, we are drawn into a different area or time of the subject. The details are astounding as well, such as the “Property of the State of California” imprint on the “Stop Ahead” sign, giving a realistic presence when viewing it.

    Because of this attention to capturing real-life detail, we are drawn in to a narrative of time, due to the time it takes to capture the essence of a space with any art form like photography. Hockney’s commitment to remembering and appreciating the smallest things, such as a chair in a room, inadvertently created the “Joiner,” an effectively deceptive and intriguing art style.

    Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 by Marcel Duchamp: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c0/Duchamp_-_Nude_Descending_a_Staircase.jpg

    David Hockney’s Online Gallery: http://www.hockneypictures.com/home.php

  • Macklin says:

    Photocubism is a type of collage technique. Typically collages are thought of being in scrapbooks or a similar medium, done physically. Glue, scissors, tape, magazine pages and many other types of printed subject matter would be used to create either a simple collage of one medium or a complex mosaic using different mediums. Photocubism runs on these rules, except just in a digital platform. The process involves well-done photography (with the right light, exposure and aperture) and digital manipulation. The concept can proceed two ways, one being taking a single image and breaking it down, duplicating and blending into an obviously manipulated collage, yet it has a unique charm to it. A charm that involves critical thinking by the viewer to piece the image together. The other method involves taking several photographs and blending them together. This method could be more fun because the photos could have slightly different subject matter, exposure, lighting, etc. which could lead to a very strange, yet understandable composition. Hockney played a big role in pioneering this medium of collage. His Joiners were a way of experiencing a space, action or object in a new way. The idea was to show the subject so that it is understandable and meaningful, yet differently. Joiners were meant to show the world through the eyes of a bug or insect or something unfamiliar to human eyes. Something disjoint, yet clear. A truly intriguing method of composition and an even more striking method of invention.

    I really enjoyed this collection and also this article explaining Hockney’s relationship with technology

  • Zoe says:

    Cubism, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque’s signature painting and sculpting style, developed as an artistic style that incorporated multiple angles of a subject into one image/sculpture. This has been incorporated into photography as of the late 20th century and pioneered by Hockney in his collection “joiners.” This style is now known as “photocubism.” Hockney accidentally discovered the art form when expressing his distaste for the wide angle lenses on cameras. His pieces from afar look as if they could be slightly distorted paintings, but upon closer inspection you are able to notice the different angles that emphasize speed and creates the picture more identifiable.

  • Kazia says:

    Photocubism is a technique in which many photographs are collaged together to create another photograph. Photocubism stems from cubism which Picasso used. He would put together shapes to create a more recognizable objects. The objects were then changed in scale and perspective.

    David Hockney creates pieces called “joiners” through the use of photocubism. He took pictures of the same space and combined them to show the space from a perspective that could not bee seen in a single image.

    Here’s a link to some of David Hockney’s work:

  • Becca says:

    Photocubism is a technique that allows a designer to create a point of interest in a piece by rearranging and/or altering pre-existing elements of an object or place. I find it really interesting that it allows one to use and manipulate images of an object in order to uncover/ a new version of that object.
    David Hockney used photocubism in really compelling ways, and each piece uses existing qualities of the subject in order to draw the eye to areas that would not normally be considered focal points if one had just taken a single photograph.
    Here’s a link to some of his work (I particularly enjoy Merced River, Yosemite Valley, under photographic collages; and Sun on the Pool in Los Angeles, under composite polaroids):

    And here’s a link to some really interesting pieces that incorporate 3-dimensional techniques. I realize we won’t be doing anything like this, but I do think there are certain aspects of these that are worth considering: http://www.photocubism.com/photocubism.php

  • Jason says:

    Photocubism stems from cubism, a style of artwork that creates an image while referencing multiple angles, showing multiple views of a piece as a singular piece. Instead of drawing, photo cubism utilizes the process of compiling multiple images into one, slightly disjointed collage. Joiners make visual sense from afar, but once the viewer examines the image more closely, you can tell that it is off a bit.

  • Lara says:

    Cubism began in the early twentieth century as a visual art style. The style is based off of geometric forms. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque began this movement. Three-dimensional form influenced cubism. There are also two parts to the style: Analytic Cubism, Synthetic Cubism. Photocubism is the combined use of photography and cubism concept. Just like reassembling the shapes in a painting, causing distortion; the photo would consist of the same spot but taken at different times.

    David Hockney utilized photocubism to create different types of scenes or ‘photo collages.’ He coined the term ‘joiners.’ Joiners are the object/ subject of the photo that wound move around him or vice versa creating time lapsed photos.


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